Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Radiology

Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia Radiolog

Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia Radiolog

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (also known as Pneumocystis pneumonia, or PCP; formerly P carinii pneumonia) is caused by the ubiquitous unicellular eukaryote, P jiroveci. This organism is a rare.. The chest films in 30 proved cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were reviewed to determine the incidence of atypical radiographic findings. Seventeen of 30 patients or 56% presented at least one atypical radiographic finding during the course of the disease Discussion Background. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is caused by the yeast-like fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci (yee-row-vet-zee), named after the Czech parasitologist Otto Jirovec. The organism was previously misclassified as a protozoan and called Pneumocystis carinii.However, use of that nomenclature is now considered incorrect, as Pneumocystis carinii infection only occurs in animals, not humans 1. An Med Interna. 1992 Nov;9(11):570-1. [Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with radiological manifestations typical of pulmonary tuberculosis]. [Article in Spanish While the overall incidence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients with AIDS has declined in recent years, it still remains a common cause of pneumonia in these patients. 1 We have noted that in our institution, patients admitted with PCP often undergo several chest radiographs (CXRs) during their hospital stay

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Radiology Case

  1. P. carinii pneumonia was diagnosed in all the dogs using transtracheal aspirate cytology and confirmed at postmortem in 3 dogs that died. Radiographically, diffuse pulmonary changes were present and varied from a mild interstitial and bronchial pattern to an alveolar pattern. Radiographic evidence of cor pulmonale was present in 1 dog
  2. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is a common opportunistic infection affecting immunosuppressed patients. High-resolution CT may be indicated for evaluation of immunosuppressed patients with suspected pneumonia and normal chest radiographic findings
  3. e the incidence of atypical radiographic findings

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: spectrum of parenchymal CT

  1. A diffuse, bilateral interstitial infiltrate is the most common radiographic finding in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, atypical roentgenographic patterns also exist
  2. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is the most common index diagnosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Eighty percent of AIDS patients will eventually develop PCP. Common presenting symptoms are shortness of breath, cough, weight loss, and fever. The chest radiograph typ
  3. ABSTRACT : OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this essay is to review the spectrum of high-resolution CT findings of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in immunocompromised patients with and without HIV infection.. CONCLUSION. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is a common opportunistic infection affecting immunosuppressed patients. High-resolution CT may be indicated for evaluation of immunosuppressed.
  4. 6.Hardak E, Brook O, Yigla M. Radiological fea-tures of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in im-munocompromised patients with and without AIDS. Lung 2010; 188:159-163 7.Mansharamani NG, Garland R, Delaney D, Koziel H. Management and outcome patterns for adult Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 1985 to 1995: comparison of HIV-associated cases t
  5. Pneumocystis is a fungus. P. carinii was originally thought to be a protozoon, when first described in the early 1900s. The advent of molecular techniques has now firmly established P. carinii as a member of the fungal kingdom, although its exact position has not yet been elucidated
  6. Radiology. 1985 Mar;154(3):791-3. Barron TF, Birnbaum NS, Shane LB, Goldsmith SJ, Rosen MJ. The validity and reliability of gallium-67 (Ga-67) scanning for diagnosis and follow-up of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) were assessed in 34 patients thought to have pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia 1 Caroline W. Rowe , M.D. 2 The John Sealy Hospital University of Texas, Medical Branch Galveston, Texas ↵ 2 Associate Professor of Radiology. Excerpt Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is apparently still rare in the United States, since only seven deaths from this cause have been unequivocally proved. The seventh of these cases, from the John Sealy Hospital. Pneumocystis Carinii pneumonia most often occurs in debilitated infants and children or those with more specific alterations of the immune mechanism. The characteristic clinical picture is one of progressive respiratory distress and cyanosis, with relatively few physical findings pertaining to the thorax & Substance. carinii Pneumocystis University [R.F.M.]; Pneumonia. College and Department Robert F. Miller, D. M. Mitchell. Middlesex School of Medicine, Medicine, St Maryâ s Thorax 1992; 47:305-314. (Department of Middlesex Hospital, Hospital, London London [D.M.M.].) WiN 8AA, of Respiratory (Reprints: R.F.M.) spread nistic HE clinical syndrome features (AIDS) of acquired were. Abstract. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is the most common index diagnosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Eighty percent of AIDS patients will eventually develop PCP. Common presenting symptoms are shortness of breath, cough, weight In and fever. The chest radiograph typically reveals a diffuse, bilateral.

Pneumocystis pneumonia | Image | Radiopaedia

Radiographic Findings in Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia

  1. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) presented as unilateral hyperlucent lung in a 27-month-old patient with a brain tumor who was receiving chemotherapy. Although unilateral pneumonia is an uncommon presentation of PCP in non-AIDS patients, PCP must be suspected in any pediatric cancer patient not receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis and receiving intensive chemotherapy
  2. A 40-year-old male, infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), presented with toxic symptoms and multiple pulmonary cystic lesions in the context of a Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The rarity of this radiological presentation is discussed and literature is reviewed. In addition, the possible pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed.
  3. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia - PCP) Πνευμοκύστη Carinii : ο συχνότερος αιτιολογικός παράγων πνευμονίας σε ασθενείς με μόλυνση ΗIV (60 - 75% όλων των ασθενών έχουν τουλάχιστον ένα επεισόδιο.
  4. In immunocompromised patients Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) may present with nonspecific symptoms and the chest x-ray films may be normal or show equivocal abnormalities. Additional investigations such as pulmonary function tests and gallium scintigraphy are sensitive, but they have low specificity for PCP. A definitive diagnosis of PCP can only be made by demonstration of the organism.
  5. Forrest, J.V. Findings in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Radiology 103: (1972) 539-544 4. Bragg, D.G. Janis, B. The roentgenographic manifestations of pulmonary opportunistic infections Am J Roentgenol 117: (1973) 798-809 5. Cross, A.S. Steigbiegel, R.T. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia presenting as localized nodular densities N Engl J Med 291.
  6. 1. Med Clin (Barc). 1991 Oct 12;97(12):477-8. [The effect of inhaled pentamidine in the radiology of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia]. [Article in Spanish

Introduction Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is an infection affecting primarily premature and weak infants. It is characterized by progressive dyspnea, cyanosis, tachypnea, and tachycardia. There are no or only slight signs upon physical examination of the chest, as opposed to a radiological picture showing progressive opacities in the lungs, fever, tendency to leukocytosis, lack of response. Limited data exist detailing the long-term sequelae of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Open lung biopsies were obtained in seven renal transplant recipients within 48 hours of the onset of respiratory failure. Biopsy specimens and simultaneous chest roentgenograms were graded without clinical information according to the severity of alveolar damage and pulmonary infiltrates, respectively Pneumocystis Carinii infection. 3.Inchildren withunexplained athrepsia, who show interstitial infiltrates onroent-genograms of the chest, Pneumocystis Carinii should besuspected inthe face of negative tuberculin tests, or, at least, bronchial washings should be attempted and proper stains employed todetect the organisms ofPneumocystis Carinii. The changing face of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999 May;172(5):1301-9. (PMID: 10227507) [3] Chow C, Templeton PA, White CS. Lung cysts associated with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: radiographic characteristics, natural history, and complications

Radiographic Distribution of Pneumocystis Carinii

The thoracic radiographic changes of Pneumocystis carinii in 7 miniature Dachshunds were reviewed. The dogs were 7-12 months old and presented with polypnea, exercise intolerance and clinical signs suggestive of immune‐incompetence The aim of this study was to compare chest computerized tomography (CT) findings of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients with and without acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Chest CT findings and clinical parameters of 38 consecutive immunocompromised patients, nine with AIDS and 29 with other causes of immunosuppression, were characterized and compared Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia that is caused by the yeast-like fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii. It is also known as PJP, for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.. Pneumocystis specimens are commonly found in the lungs of healthy people although it is usually not a cause for disease. However, they are a source of opportunistic infection and can cause lung infections in people. A retrospective review of the charts of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was performed at three university-affiliated teaching hospitals in Denver between May 1982 and April 1987. Patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and for the occurrence of pneumothorax at any time during their clinical course

Test. Patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), but a normal or unchanged chest x-ray, should undergo either an HRCT scan of the chest or pulmonary function tests with measurement of diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide.. If the HRCT scan shows ground glass opacities, the patient should undergo sputum induction followed by bronchoalveolar lavage (if. Pneumocystis carinii. pneumonia in an era of effective. prophylaxis. : the relative contribution of non-. adherence. and drug failure. Lundberg, Brita E. a,b; Davidson, Arthur J. a,c; Burman, William J. a,b. Author Information. From the a Department of Public Health, Denver Health and Hospitals and the b Departments of Medicine (Division of.

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia complicating immune

Radiology 1978; 127:437-438. Liebman R, Ryo UY, Bekerman C, Pinsky SM. Ga-67 scan of a homosexual man with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Clin Nucl Med 1982; 7:480-481. Parthasarathy KL, Bakshi SP, Bender 154. Doppman JL, Geelhoed GW, De Vita VT. Atypical radiographic features in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Radiology 1975; 114:39-44 The incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii (previously named Pneumocystis carinii) pneumonia has dramatically declined due to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and, to a lesser extent, the use of prophylaxis. Despite this decrease, it remains one of the leading causes of opportunistic infections among persons with HIV and low CD4 cell counts.

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia Radiology Case

  1. Pneumocystis jirovec is a tiny fungus that lives in the lungs of many people. Most people's immune systems keep the fungus under control. But if your immune system is weak, the fungus can make you very sick. The most common problem of infection is pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). PCP once was the major cause of death for people with HIV/AIDS
  2. Aspergillus species. More than 190 species of Aspergillus have been formally recognized, most are harmless saprophytes. It is estimated that Apergillus fumigatus is responsible for 90-95% of aspergillosis infections in animals. Other Aspergillus species that occasionally cause infections are A. niger, A. flavus, A. terreus, A. deflectus, A. flavipes and possibly A. nidulans
  3. The usefulness of induced sputum in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis . 1986 Apr. 133(4):515-8. [Medline]
  4. A case of endobronchial Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is described in a 35-year-old man seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus and receiving aerosolized pentamidine.He presented with 1 week of chest pain, cough, and fever. Chest radiograph revealed a cavitary lingular process. Bronchoscopy revealed nodular endobronchial lesions obstructing the left upper division and extending to.
  5. ation of a one-year-old Cavalier King Charles Spaniel with four-week history of dyspnea. Cytologic and histologic exa
  6. Eur Radiol (2002) 13:1179-1184 DOI 10.1007/s00330-002-1641-6 CHEST A. Hidalgo Accuracy of high-resolution CT V. Falcó S. Mauleón in distinguishing between Pneumocystis J. Andreu M. Crespo carinii pneumonia and non-Pneumocystis E. Ribera A. Pahissa carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients J. Cáceres Received: 4 March 2002 Abstract The aim of this study was predictive value and negative predic.
  7. Pneumonia Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia Aka: Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia, Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia, Pneumocystis jiroveci , Pneumocystis carinii, PCP Pneumonia, Pneumocystis carinii infection II. Epidemiology United States : 20,000 to 60,000 cases/year HIV without prophylaxis develops PCP sometime: 75-90% III

LearningRadiology - PCP, Pneumocystis, Carinii, Pneumonia

Forrest JV. Radiographic findings in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Radiology. 1972;103:539-44. CAS Article Google Scholar 8. Panicek DM, Groskin SA, Chung CT, Heitzman ER, Sagerman RH. Atypical distribution of Pneumocystis carinii infiltrates during radiation therapy. Radiology. 1987;163:689-90 Despite a declining prevalence secondary to improved prophylaxis, Pneumocystis carinii remains an important pulmonary pathogen in the immunocompromised host. Because the radiologist is often the first to suggest the diagnosis of PCP, an awareness of the entire spectrum of imaging features associated with this organism is important

Radiographic Findings in Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia Radiographic Findings in Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia Forrest, John V. 1972-06-01 00:00:00 Six cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia are presented. Characteristic radiographic findings include perihilar distribution of pulmonary infiltrates and frequent sparing of the peripheral lung fields in the early stages Patients with pneumocystis pneumonia present with a progressive lung infiltrate of unknown aetiology. Possible causes are manyandinclude bac-terial, fungal and viral infections, pulmonary hae- 949 J 14 Pneumocystis pneumonia pneumonia Pneumocystis carinii. RubinNE, a RA,. The aim of this study was to assess the value of high-resolution CT in distinguishing between Pneumocystis carinii and non-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients HIV-positive and high risk to have PCP. We performed a prospective study in 30 patients with <200 CD4 lymphocytes, clinical symptoms of pulmonary disease and chest X-ray non-conclusive for pulmonary infection Radiology • CXR: - Can be normal or diffuse bilateral infiltrates extending from the perihilar region are visible in most patients with P carinii pneumonia (PCP). 13. X-ray of Pneumocystis jiroveciipneumonia. There is increased opacification (whiteness) in the lower lungs on both sides, characteristic of Pneumocystis pneumonia 14 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Opportunistic infection of pnemocystis carinii, measuring up to 6 um, usually concurrent infection by opportunistic bacteria, fungi, viruses especially CMV. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis. Opportunistic infection in debilitated or immunocompromised patient, e.g. AIDS

Amorosa JK, Nahass RG, Nosher JL, Gocke DJ (1990) Radiologic distinction of pyogenic pulmonary infection from pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients. Radiology 175: 721-724. PubMed Google Scholar 15. Sider L, Gabriel H, Curry DR, Pham MS (1993) Pattern recognition of the pulmonary manifestation of AIDS on CT scans Topics to be discussed: Radiological anatomy of lung Common radiological features of pneumonia 1. Staphylococcus aureus 2. Klebsiella pneumoniae 3. Mycoplasma pneumoniae 4. Pneumocystis carinii 5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis 6. Mycobacterium avium complex 7. Hydatid disease of lung 8. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 9. Candida albicans 10 Although Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) usually presents with bilateral interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, many other roentgenographic presentations occur in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. To clarify the determinants of atypical presentations of PCP, we evaluated 65 English-language reports that related the roentgenographic manifestations of consecutive cases of PCP Atypical radiological presentations of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia have been previously reported in non-HIV1 as well as in HIV-infected patients.2 We present the case of a 64-year-old woman with a history of left upper lobe small cell lung cancer in radiological and clinical remission (most recent CT scan performed 1 week before admission) Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia Sputum Induction Multisystem Organ Failure Aerosol Pentamidine Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia Prophylaxis These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves

The radiographic findings of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) are various. The typical findings are diffuse, bilateral, symmetric, finely granular, or reticular infiltrates. In patients taking aerosol pentamidine, atypical findings may be the first manifestation. One interesting radiologic finding of PCP is that the pneumonia may spare the irradiated lung. We report PCP developed in a. The value of Pneumocystis carinii antibody and antigen detection for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after marrow transplantation. Am Rev Respir Dis . 1979;120:1283-1287. 21 About My J-STAGE; Sign-in; Register; Shopping Cart; Hel

Pneumocystis spp. are thought to be ubiquitous in nature with serologic studies suggesting exposure occurs commonly in childhood 2. The existence and degree of respiratory tract colonization by Pneumocystis is a topic of great interest 3, 4. Symptomatic Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is generally limited, however, to individuals with immune deficits P carinii has been reported as a fungal opportunistic pathogen, which causes serious pneumonia in patients with immunodeficiency. P carinii pneumonia was one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients in the 1980s. Update on the epidemiology and transmission of Pneumocystis carinii The progression of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was temporally monitored and quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction of P. carinii-specific DNA in oral swabs and lung homogenates from.

pneumocystis pneumonia

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains the most common opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Familiarity with the clinical features of PCP is crucial for prompt diagnosis, even if the patient is unaware of their HIV serostatus. We describe herein the clinical features of 34 episodes in 32 patients with AIDS-associated PCP and review the existing. Bienvenu AL et al: Pneumocystis pneumonia suspected cases in 604 non-HIV and HIV patients. Int J Infect Dis. 46:11-7, 2016. Lu PX et al: Correlation between imaging features of Pneumocystis Jiroveci pneumonitis (PCP), CD (4) (+) T lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load: A study in 50 consecutive AIDS patients Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii/jirovecii. Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii), is a yeast-like fungus of the genus Pneumocystis and is the causative organism of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP).PCP occurs in ~20% of patients with ALL who are not on prophylaxis. The infection is extremely unusual in patients who are compliant with Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis Radiology. Rheumatology. Transplantation. Which findings suggest pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and HIV infection. Recommendations for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia for adults and adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus. MMWR 1992; 41 (RR-4): 1-11. 6

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia Information | Mount Sinai

Radiological features of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia

—The causative organism is felt by most to be a protozoan. 10 It has been found in every case of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, although Koch's postulates have never been satisfied. It is named after Carini, 5 who described it in 1910, although Chagas 6 in 1909, is generally thought to be the first to have described it Pneumocystis carinii was the only pathogen identified in each case. The unusual clinical presentations delayed the diagnosis of P carinii in all 5 cases. Practitioners must be aware of the variable presentations of P carinii pneumonia. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:351-355 Determine the presence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) Methodology. Gomori methenamine silver stain and microscopic evaluation are performed. Additional Information. The Cytology Laboratory does not offer a Pneumocystis stain by itself but does offer a cytologic interpretation of the specimen in conjunction with a special stain for PCP. The organism Pneumocystis jirovecii, previously known as Pneumocystis carinii, is the causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). In immunocompromised HIV-negative patients, PCP is a feared disease and particularly challenging to diagnose for several reasons

Define pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. pneumocystis carinii pneumonia synonyms, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia pronunciation, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia translation, English dictionary definition of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Relationship between Radiological Stages and Prognoses of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Non-AIDS. Pneumocystis jirovecii is a ubiquitous fungus, which causes pneumonia in humans. Extrapulmonary disease occurs occasionally. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised people. It remains a leading AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in HIV-infected individuals

Radiologic distinction of pyogenic pulmonary infection

Pneumocystis pneumonia represents a potentially life-threatening infection caused by the fungal microorganism Pneumocystis jiroveci. Initially observed in premature and malnourished infants. Nov 8, 2016 - :Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. If left untreated, chest X-ray may progress to alveolar consolidation in 3 or 4 days. Infiltrates clear within 2 weeks, but in a proportion infection will be followed by coarse reticular opacification and fibrosis. Note the large cyst (arrow Pneumocystis carinii remains an important pathogen in immunocompromised individuals despite the variety of effective antimicrobial strategies. Prophylactic strategies should reflect the nature of predisposing immune deficits, the ability of patients to tolerate specific agents, geography, and the medical institution

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic infection that has shown a marked increase in prevalence in the United States during the past 2 decades, particularly in association with aquired immune deficiency syndrome. Determining a specific taxonomy for P carinii has been problematic Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is a fungal infection of the lungs. The disease used to be called Pneumocystis carini or PCP pneumonia. The major features of the lungs include the bronchi, the bronchioles and the alveoli. The alveoli are the microscopic blood vessel-lined sacks in which oxygen and carbon dioxide gas are exchanged Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia เป็นจุลชีพฉวยโอกาสที่ก่อโรคปอดอักเสบในผู้ป่วย.

Histopathology Lung--Pneumocystis pneumonia - YouTube

Atovaquone (Brand name: Mepron®) - Manufactured by Glaxo Wellcome Inc. FDA-approved indication: For the acute oral treatment of mild to moderate Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients who are intolerant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Prevention of PCP in patients who are intolerant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Introduction. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (formerly named Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or PCP) was initially described in the middle of the last century in premature neonates and malnourished infants. More recently, PCP has been reported in severely immunocompromised patients with cancer therapy or HIV infection. 1, 2 Initially classified as a protozoan on the basis of morphological. Introduction [edit | edit source]. Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PJP) was previously called as Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), it is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infection in immuno-compromised conditions such as haematological malignancy, congenital immunodeficiency, organ transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, under medication and predominantly in HIV/AIDS

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